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Toba Tek Singh Review: Unravelling Manto’s Insightful Commentary on Partition and Identity


Saadat Hasan Manto’s short story “Toba Tek Singh” is a profound reflection on the absurdity and tragedy of the Partition of India in 1947. Through the story of inmates in a mental asylum affected by the newly drawn borders between India and Pakistan, Manto exposes the nonsensical nature of political divisions based on religion and ethnicity. This review delves into the themes, characters, and enduring relevance of this iconic piece of literature.

Plot Overview

The story revolves around the lives of inmates in a mental asylum in Lahore, now in Pakistan, who are to be exchanged across the new borders according to their religious identity. Among them is Bishan Singh, also known as Toba Tek Singh after his hometown. The narrative follows the confusion and upheaval experienced by these inmates as they grapple with their impending transfer and struggle to comprehend the changing world around them.

Bishan Singh, in particular, becomes a symbol of the displaced and bewildered common man. His character’s confusion over where Toba Tek Singh is located — in India or Pakistan — mirrors the larger identity crisis faced by millions during Partition.

Characters and Development

Manto vividly sketches a range of characters within the asylum, each representing different facets of society and different responses to the upheaval. Bishan Singh stands out for his steadfast attachment to his homeland, which he cannot locate on either side of the border. His refusal to move from his spot during the transfer process is both tragic and comic, illustrating the deep human cost of arbitrary political decisions.

The other inmates, with their varied reactions, from apathy to hysteria, enrich the narrative, providing a poignant commentary on the insanity of the outside world compared to the supposed madness inside the asylum.

Themes and Analysis

The primary theme of “Toba Tek Singh” is the absurdity of Partition and its impact on ordinary lives. Manto uses the setting of a mental asylum as a metaphor for the madness of the political events of the time. The story questions the meaning of sanity and nationality, suggesting that the real madness lies in the division of people based on constructed differences.

Additionally, the story explores the concept of home and belonging, poignantly depicted through Bishan Singh’s confusion about his hometown’s whereabouts. Manto effectively criticizes the artificiality of borders and the alienation they cause, making a powerful statement about the human desire for identity and place.

Writing Style and Impact

Manto’s writing is simple yet powerful, with a starkness that conveys deep emotional and philosophical themes without convoluted language. His use of irony and satire sharpens the impact of his critique on the socio-political context of his time, making “Toba Tek Singh” a compelling read that resonates with readers even today.


“Toba Tek Singh” is more than just a story about Partition; it is a timeless exploration of the human condition in the face of divisive politics. Saadat Hasan Manto, with his unique voice and incisive perspective, offers a narrative that is both a historical document and a deeply moving piece of literature. This story is a must-read for anyone interested in the effects of political decisions on personal lives and the enduring quest for identity and belonging in a changing world.

The simplicity of the language, combined with the depth of the narrative, makes “Toba Tek Singh” accessible and impactful for readers from all walks of life. As we continue to witness new political and social divisions around the world, Manto’s story remains a vital reminder of the need to view such events through the lens of humanity first and foremost.

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